What is metro automation?
In metro systems, automation refers to the process by which responsibility for operation management of the trains is transferred from the driver to the train control system.
There are various degrees of automation (or Grades of Automation, GoA); these are defined according to which basic functions of train operation are responsibility of staff, and which are the responsibility of the system itself. For example, a Grade of Automation 0 would correspond to on-sight operation, like a tram running on street traffic. Grade of Automation 4 would refer to a system in which vehicles are run fully automatically without any operating staff onboard.